THE SPANISH PASTORAL AND THE RENAISSANCE SONNET
It has been said that three elements – pastoral novel, autobiographical novel, and lyrical anthology – formed the El Prado de Valencia by Don Gaspar Mercader (1600). This is true of the majority of Spanish pastoral romances, in varying degrees; however, we must leave the issue of the roman à clef (or enovela de clavef) to one side, for what is of greatest pertinence to this study is the degree to which the poetry is integrated to the prose (or vice versa). The insertion of poems into a narrative – as opposed to their simply ending a chapter, as in Boccacciofs Ameto and Sannazarofs Arcadia – was a feature of the chivalric romances, and could be found in Bernardim Ribeirofs (1482-1552) Menina e moça (1554). It is now generally recognised that Gil Polofs poems are appropriate to their context, in opposition to the earlier view, of Menéndez Pelayo, that they represented the intercalation of previously written texts. Diana Enamorada is also distinguished by a rhythmic prose – one that is to be recited, one that lies close to poetry – and therefore harmony between both manifestations of literary language. The same synthesis of poetry and narration has been claimed for Montemayor. Features of his prose style such as the use of opposites, the delaying of the verb until the end, the intense use of epithets (in the pastoral tradition), the accumulation of terms, are also evident in his poetry. One feature of Yongfs style is his attempt to poeticise his prose; the desire to endow this comparatively recent medium with literary dignity was a factor behind the rise of Euphuism, and it is necessary to remark on the salient features of this mode of writing.
The association of pastoral and sonnet was primarily Spanish, then transmitted to French and German through translation; indeed, in Baroque Germany, this setting was to play a role in the dissemination of this poetic form. The association was in no way incongruous. It had, in a way, been foreshadowed by Sannazaro, who made Petrarchian conventions amenable to the pastoral through the avoidance of flamboyant excess in his sonnets. Moreover, the style of Petrarchan poetry lent itself to prose, in the guise of euphuism. It is this proximity to poetry that is most interesting about the euphuistic style. In such prose, gcthe sentence has a symmetrical structure imposed on it analogous to that of versec a sentence may assume an almost stanzaic form.h Moreover, the features of this style – the parallel sentence structure, the careful balance and antithesis, and the emphasis on sound relationships (alliteration, assonance, the pleasure of contrasting similarities) – offer many correspondences with that type of poetry we find in the Petrarchan sonnet. Of course, these figures of sound are dependent on syntax, and they are therefore instruments of thought. In this respect, Euphuism can be considered to be Petrarchism in prose; this is less applicable to the elaborate similes, often drawn from natural history, that impressed contemporaries and brought the weight of scorn bearing down on this style, although even they can be found in the very beginnings of the sonnet. The euphuistic aspect of poems such as eThe lowest trees haue topps, the ante her gall,f – which takes its opening lines from Euphues and his England (1580) – has been noted. Such a poem is typical of the esixain Petrarchanismf we find in Watsonfs Hekatompathia. The similarities between the heroine of romances and the Petrarchan heroine are also strong: in John Davies of Kidwellyfs The Extravagant Shepherd, a 1653 translation of Charles Sorelfs anti-romance Le Berger Extravagant, there is an illustration entitled: eA Poetfs Dream Realised,f in which his mistresses eyes are portrayed as two suns, lilies and roses cover her cheeks, her teeth are pearls – and so on. The reader who turns into this illustration will not only be shocked at seeing the literal representation of poetic claims, but will also assume that it is Petrarchan conventions, and the Petrarchan use of language, that are being parodied.
With Montemayor, the pastoral lost in atmosphere and nostalgic lament, and it gained in depth of exploration of the psychology of love; the sonnet seems the ideal form in which to continue this exploration, and this supposition will find confirmation in our examination of Yongfs translations from Gil Polo. The other poetic forms are perhaps more suitable for the expression of an amatory state; it would be overstating the case to claim that they do not provide opportunities for exploration, but on an individual, poem for poem basis, they do not exert the same pressure on language. This suggests that the sonnet is one of the most objective poetic forms; and the distance that this objectivity creates is actually helpful to the translator. It makes it easier to engage with the text in a creative capacity; poems that are more overtly subjective may arouse a higher degree of empathy.
Moreover, as one eminent critic has remarked, the pastoral novel has an advantage over the sonnet-cycle in the analysis of the nature of love: whereas a cycle portrays an individualfs range of states of mind, the characters in the novel can react against each other, thus creating a network of divergent voices that constantly question theory and experience; the monologual restrictions of the sonnet-sequence are, at least in theory, overcome. The aim of the pastoral is to debate the merits of the different kinds of love. Neoplatonism, the sense of love as the supreme binding cosmic force, pervades this genre. Indeed, the multiplicity of personages and the polymorphic poetry can all be said to represent manifestations of one Idea; there is the sense that the writer, like the characters, is striving after a seemingly inaccessible unity.
English pastorals after Sidney and Yong did not take advantage of the
opportunities offered. The English
pastoral romances, with the exception of
 Juan Bautista Avalle-Arce, La novela pastoril española (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1959), p. 141.
 Ed. Teresa Amado (Lisboa: Editorial Comunicaçao, 1984). However, this work contains only 3 poems, all in native measures (p. 120, p. 131, and p. 179).
 Rafael Ferreres ed., Diana Enamorada. Gaspar Gil Polo. (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1953), pp. xxviii-xxix; Estrada ed., Diana Enamorada (Madrid: Castalia, 1987), pp. 44-45.
 Estrada ed. (1987), p. 43.
R.O. Jones, in A Literary History
 Bruno M. Damiani, eAspectos Estilísticos de La Diana de Jorge de Montemayor,f Revista de Filología Española 63 (1983), pp. 291-312 (311-312).
 Estrada ed. (1987), p. 43.
 Judith M. Kennedy ed., A Critical Edition of Yongfs Translation of Montemayorfs Diana and Gil Polofs Enamoured Diana (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. lxviii.
 From small acorns – only 4 sonnets in Diana – there grew a number of moderate-sized oaks: 14 in Pérezfs continuation, 13 in Gil Polo, 20 in Cervantesfs La Galatea (1585), and 24 in Lopefs Arcadia (1598). Jerónimo de Tejedafs new continuation of Diana in 1627– La Diana de Montemayor. Nuevamente compuesto [sic] por Hierónymo de Texeda Castellanoc do se da fin a las Historias de la Primera y Segunda Parte – included 45 sonnets from other sources (9 from Gil Polo, whom he plagiarised heavily in general; 5 from Lope de Vegafs non-dramatic work, and 30 from his dramas; and one from La Galatea). –Avalle-Arce (1959), pp. 115-118.
 In the first French pastoral novel, Remy Belleaufs La Bergerie (1565), there are 24
sonnets. –Oeuvres Poétiques (2 Vols.
ed. Guy Demerson.
 Especially by translations of Montreulxfs Les bergeries de Juliette and DfUrféfs Astrée. –Joseph Leighton, eDas barocke Sonett als Gelegenheitsgedichtf in Martin Bircher and Eberhard Mannack (eds), Deutsche Barockliteratur und europäische Kultur: Zweites Jahrestreffen des Internationalen Arbeitskreises für deutsche Barockliteratur in der Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel 28. bis 31. August 1976 (Hamburg: Dr Ernst Hauswedell & Co. Verlag 1977), 141-167, (151).
 His Rime, written in his youth in the Neapolitan dialect, and revised into Tuscan at the end of his life, were published in 1530, soon after his death. They include 80 sonnets in 2 parts, but with no discernible order. –William J. Kennedy, Jacopo Sannazaro and the Uses of Pastoral (Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1983), pp. 39-40.
 Ernest A. Baker, The History of the English Novel (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1963), II:63-64.
 G.K. Hunter, John Lyly. The Humanist as Courtier (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962, p. 263)lists 8 features of Euphuism: 1) Parison; 2) Isocolon; 3) Paromoion (same sound patterns); 4) quasi-rhymes (similiter cadens, similiter desinens, anaphora, epistrophe); 5) alliteration, especially transverse; 6) eunnatural historyf similes; 7) proverbs and exemplums, often in lists; 8) rhetorical questions.
 Jonas Barish, eThe prose-style of John Lyly,f ELH 23 (1956), pp. 14-35 (16), referring to isocolon and parison.
 Hunter (1962), p. 276. These similes were used to pattern and organise nature; whereas Medieval bestiaries drew a parallel between nature and the divine scheme, Lyly drew a parallel nature and man (S.L. Wolff, Sewanee Review 31 (1923), p. 25, q. p.279).
 Baker (1963) mentions that it was this aspect of Euphuism which
gave rise to criticism. -II:64.
 For example, Lo basilisco a lo speclo lucente by Giacomo da Lentino, in which the basilisk, the swan, the peacock, and the phoenix, isocolonise the octet.
 Lines 1-2, from Lyly (1902), II:90; line 3, ibid, II:372; and line 8, ibid, II:219. –Ralph M. Sargent, The Life and Lyrics of Sir Edward Dyer (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968; formerly entitled At the Court of Queen Elizabeth ), p.211.
 Gerald Hammond (ed.), Elizabethan
Poetry: Lyrical and Narrative (London: Macmillan, 1984), p.10 and n.2. This was written by Sir Edward Dyer
c.1580; it was doubtfully attributed to Lyly in Vol.III of the 1902 edition of
his complete works (ed. R. Warwick Bond.
 The youthful
 This illustration appears on p. 401 of J.J. Jusserand, The English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare,
translated by Elizabeth Lee (London: Ernest Benn, 1966 ). This esonnet-ladyf picture has an
interesting history; the 3 versions of it, each one less realistic and more
ridiculous than the last, can be found in Thomas Roche (Petrarch and the English Sonnet Sequences.
 Kennedy ed. (1968), pp. xxi-xxii.
 Wording taken
from Greg Walker, eThe Renaissance in
 Arthur Terry, Seventeenth
Century Spanish Poetry (Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 30. On the
other hand, the writing of a sequence allows – or enforces – more controlled
experimentation. -Spiller (1992), p. 108f.
He has in mind
 The sonnet appeared as a monologue in Spanish plays. Lope de Vega, in line 308 of his eArte Nuevo de Hacer Comediasf (Obras Poéticas. Ed. J.M. Blecua.
Barcelona: Planeta, 1983, p. 265), remarked: gEl soneto está bien en los que
sonnet is for those in waiting: for those on the stage alone, with an audience
to entertain. –Lucile K.
Delano, eThe Sonnet in the Golden Age Drama of
 According to Leone Ebreo (Judah Abravanel, c.1460-c.1523), in his Dialoghi dfAmore (published 1535), a work strongly influenced by Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, love is identified with God. The chances of rhyme supply few partners for elovef in English: but one of this small group – eabovef – seems as appropriate as any other term.
 Rallo ed. (1991), p. 42.
 The combination of prose and verse was essential to the genre. It is evident in such titles as,
 There are no
sonnets in Robert Greenefs Menaphon
(1589), his only prose work to contain interspersed poems, nor among the poems
of Thomas Lodgefs Rosalynde, nor in
Robert Parryfs (fl. 1540-1612) Moderatvs
(1595), the poetical component of which consists almost entirely of sixains,
his favoured form (his Sinetes 
contains 46 ePassionsf of four-sixained poems). John Dickenson (fl. 1594-98), Arisbas, Euphues amidst his slumbers
(1594), a collection of lyrics with a tenuous prose link in the manner of
Sannazaro, includes 10 poems, with one sonnet (Arisbas his Sonet) in Shakespearean form, with the quatrains and
couplet printed as separate units; his The
Shepheardes Complaint (1596) contains sixains and rhyme royal, but no
sonnets. The English Arcadia (Pt. 1,
1607; Pt. 2, 1613) of Gervase Markham (1568?-1637) contains 4 Shakespearean
sonnets in the first part (eStrong heart, my strong eares vnconsumed thronef;
eIn vaine my wittes you labour to excusef; eI doe not now complaine of my
disgracef and eCare keepe that absent presence in my brestf) as well as four
poems composed of quatrains/sixains.
The second part includes only 1 Shakespearean sonnet (eCare and
complaint, you sonnes of loues vnrestf) which, unlike those in the first part,
is not named as a sonnet. As
concerns the other continuations of Sidneyfs pastoral: Richard Belling (d.
1677), A Sixth Booke to the Countesse of
Pembrokefs Arcadia (1624), contains an acrostic sonnet in the dedicatory
section (abab abab cc dede) by eH. Delaunef,
but almost all the poetry in the text is couplet-based; and Anna Weamys (b. ca.
1630), A Continuation of Sir Philip
Sydneyfs Arcadia (1651), contains no poems. Finally, there are no sonnets in
Spenserfs Shepherdfs Calender, the
initiator of the pastoral genre in
 The Shakespearean ones, eMy hart & tongue were twinnes, at once conceavedf and eHearbs, words, and stones, all maladies haue cured,f both of which were sung before the Queen. Also M. Birdfs eAs I beheld, J saw a Heardman wildef; eAs withereth the Primrose by the riuer,f a double-sonnet by Edmund Bolton in Shakespearean form; Richard Barnfieldfs eMy fairest Ganimede disdaine me notf in his usual abba cddc effe gg style; the anonymous translation of Petrarca 310, eZephirus brings the time that sweetly sentethf (abababab cdc ede); Sidneyfs Shakespearean eIn wonted walkes, since wonted fancies change,f eVertue, beauty, and speach, did strike, wound, charme,f and eA Satyre once did runne away for dreadf; and Sir Edward Dyerfs Shakespearean ePrometheus, when first from heauen hie.f
The additions to the 2nd edition (1614) did not include any sonnets.
 There are no sonnets in A Book of English Pastoral Verse ed. John Barrell and John Bull (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975); English Pastoral Poetry. From the Beginnings to Marvell ed. Frank Kermode (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1952) contains only one, William Drummondfs eTo hear my Plaints faire River Christalline,f a translation from Sannazaro. This does not explain the absence of the epithalamion, gLet now each meade,f Yongfs best-known poem, which appeared in Robert H. Casefs English Epithalamies (London: John Lane, 1896, pp. 4-5). Case refers in his introduction to gthe beautiful poem of Bartholomew Youngh – although it cannot be gseriously comparedh with Spenserfs Epithalamion (p. xxvii).
 Hyder H. Rollins ed.,